<img height="1" width="1" alt="" style="display:none" src="https://www.facebook.com/tr?id=940171109376247&amp;ev=PageView&amp;noscript=1">

Dedicated to Teachers

Fostering Independence and the Progression Of Literacy Development

sm_E08775_Moses and Ogden_Book Cover_MG5D7280


As authors Lindsey Moses and Meridith Ogden point out in their book What are the Rest of my Kids Doing?” Fostering Independence in the K—2 Reading Workshop, there are a variety of ways to discuss the stages of literacy development. Fountas and Pinnell (2011) developed a continuum of literacy learning with corresponding leveled text. Others use Lexile levels, Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) levels, Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) scores, grade-level expectations, or various norm-referenced assessments. Although Moses and Ogden assess reading performance of young learners using these tools, they note that a more general understanding of literacy progression helps to inform decisions made about developmentally appropriate practice. The National Association of the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and International Reading Association (IRA) identify phases in a continuum of early reading and writing (1998).

Moses and Ogden note that, IRA and NAEYC recommend effective reading instruction for kindergarten and primary grades that includes but is not limited to the following:

  • reading meaningful and engaging stories and informational text daily
  • giving students opportunities to independently read meaningful and engaging stories and informational text daily
  • providing balanced literacy instruction that includes decoding and meaningful reading instruction
  • establishing opportunities for small groups that provide focused instruction and collaboration with other students
  • teaching a curriculum that is intellectually engaging and challenging to expand children’s knowledge of the world and develop vocabulary

Below the authors offer instructional suggestions as the beginning steps in creating an environment that fosters independence among young learners in the reading workshop.

Children can . . .




Phase 2 (kindergarten)

  • Listen to stories and retell simple narrative stories or informational text
  • Use expressive language to describe and explore
  • Recognize and name letters
  • Demonstrate letter-sound correspondence
  • Demonstrate some recognition of rhyme and beginning sounds
  • Understand basic print concepts (read left to right, top to bottom)
  • Match printed words with spoken words

Phase 3 (first grade)

  • Read and retell familiar stories
  • Use strategies (rereading, predicting, questioning, contextualizing) when comprehension breaks down
  • Use reading and writing for various purposes on their own initiative
  • Orally read with reasonable fluency
  • Use letter-sound associations, word parts, and context to identify new words
  • Identify an increasing number of words by sight

Phase 4 (second grade)

  • Read with greater fluency
  • Use strategies more efficiently when comprehension breaks down
  • Use word identification strategies with greater facility to identify unknown words
  • Identify an increasing number of words by sight
The above table shows an adaptation of expected reading development for children in the primary grades (phases 2, 3, and 4) from the IRA and NAEYC (1998, 15–16).

♦ ♦ ♦

You can learn more about "What Are The Rest of My Kids Doing?" here

♦ ♦ ♦

Posted by: Lauren AudetPublished:

Topics: Early Childhood Education, education, Fountas and Pinnell Literacy, Literacy Development, Meridith Ogden, Reading, What are the Rest of my Kids Doing?, Writing, administration, Assessment, Comprehension, Conferring, Differentiated Instruction, elementary, Independent Reading, Lindsey Moses, Literacy, Spelling

Comment on this post:

Related Posts

Support Students to Learn and Use Phonics All Day Long, K-2

by Anna Cockerille A hallmark of being a classroom teacher is that you have to make difficult decisions a...
Frances Lown Jan 23, 2018 10:27:16 AM

Balancing the Principal Hat and the The Coaching Lens

The following is adapted from Reclaiming the Principalship by Tom Marshall.  A fine line is drawn when th...
Frances Lown Jan 12, 2018 11:37:36 AM

Supporting Struggling Learners with Patricia Vitale-Reilly

On today’s Heinemann Podcast, Supporting Struggling Learners. How do we meet the needs of all our student...
Brett Whitmarsh Oct 20, 2017 5:26:31 PM

Taking the Fear Out of Jumping Into Inquiry

Let's face it, the idea of jumping into student-directed inquiry can be overwhelming. Fears over releasin...
Lauren Audet Sep 7, 2017 3:56:06 AM